Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+

A week after writing up one of the worst farm system in baseball in the Diamondbacks, I’ve been blessed with the task of covering arguably the best farm system in the Atlanta Braves. Over the last few seasons the Braves have done an excellent job of acquiring top prospects in trades, and via the draft. This approach that has left them with an embarrassment of riches. It’s not often you can trade an obvious over-performing pitcher for the top pick in a deep draft, and a handful of other good, young, and controllable assets. Fortunately for Braves fans, GM John Coppolella has very incriminating photos of Dave Stewart. Otherwise such outlandish trades like the Swanson and Toussiant deals wouldn’t have been possible. Since then, the Braves have added one of the top International signings in recent memory in Kevin Maitan, and took in quite a haul in last June’s draft. In other words, there is much to discuss in the Braves system. Instead of rambling for another 100 words about Disney magic, and how dumb Dave Stewart is, let’s just dig into one of the more exciting farms.

 

Tier 1: Specs On The Beach
Potential stars. Consensus T100 prospects with premium fantasy ceilings.

Dansby Swanson, SS | Age: 22 | ETA: 2017 | 2016 Level: MLB/AA/A+

At this point we should all be well aware of the trade that brought Dansby Swanson and other top Diamondback prospects to Atlanta for the curse of Shelby Miller. Swanson is one of those classic better in real life than fantasy types. That’s not to say he won’t have value, and won’t be a universally owned for most of his career. The comps thrown around most frequently are Erick Aybar on the low end, and Derek Jeter on the high end. Which is like saying he’s going to be a grapefruit or a tank. The Jeter comp is about as high end as you can get, and highly unlikely. On the other hand the Aybar comp makes you want to forget you ever read this. My guess is the finished product will be somewhere in the middle. After all, he is blessed with a very good hit tool, middle of the road power, and speed. So you’re asking yourself “why was this schmuck the first overall pick in a stacked draft?” Well, he’s chock full of that fantasy difference maker, INTANGIBLES. In 2017 I would expect a borderline MI type, that you’ll probably stream during his hot stretches. Ultimately he projects out as a .280-.300 hitter, with 15 homer pop, and 15-20 steal speed. Probably a prototypical two hole hitter. For more on Swanson check out Grey’s Dansby Swanson fantasy.

Kevin Maitan, SS | Age: 16 | ETA 2021 | 2016 Level: Pre-School

The fresh-faced Venezuelan is the best teenaged international product in at least a decade. The two comps most fequently thrown around are Chipper Jones and Miguel Cabrera. Yeah, he’s that good. For those of you unfamiliar, he’s a switch-hitting sixteen year old savant, with 60 grade power, and hit tool from both sides of the plate. I know he’s high on here for a player at least 4 years away from the majors, but it’s tough to ignore anyone with “best player in the game” type upside.

Ozzie Albies, 2B/SS | Age: 19 | ETA 2017 | 2016 Level: AAA/AA

The switch-hitting teenager with ceiling for days. No, not the aforementioned Kevin Maitan. It’s the slightly older Ozzie Albies! Blessed with plus-plus speed and an excellent hit tool, Albies has moved quickly through the minors. So much so, that he finds himself on the cusp of a much anticipated big league debut. Prior to 2016, Albies was considered a non-factor in the power department, but made some excellent gains this season. In his peak years expect a .280 to .300+ average with 30+ steals, and maybe enough pop to crack double digits homer totals.

Austin Riley, 3B | Age: 20 | ETA: 2018 | 2016 Level: A

After fueling a serious hype machine coming into 2016, Riley burned through a lot of good will with a disastrous first half. As soon as the calendar hit July, the powerful beast we know and love made an appearance, slamming 17 homers from July 5th on and dropping an absurd .297 ISO. The long and the short, Riley is one of the top 10 corner infield prospects in the game. Though he’s only 20, there’s a solid chance he’s patrolling the hot corner in Atlanta by mid-2018.

Kolby Allard, LHP | Age: 19 | ETA: 2020 | 2016 Level: A/Rk

This is one sure to cause some debate, particularly in a system chock full of tasty spec arms, but for my money Allard has the highest upside in the system. A lefty with a deceptive delivery and plus plus offerings, in his mid-90’s fastball and sharp curveball. Many evaluators draw comparisons to Cliff Lee. A stress fracture in his back caused him to drop to Atlanta in the middle of last year’s first round. Durability remains the one question mark with Allard, but a solid 87.2 innings this year should quiet some of those critics.

Luiz Gohara, LHP | Age: 20 | ETA: 2019 | 2016 Level: A/A-

Acquired from the mariners in the Mallex Smith trade, the first one. Another elite pitching prospect to add to the mix in the A-T-L, Gohara draws comps to C.C. Sabathia, and not just for the bad body but the stuff as well. He works upper 90’s with the fastball (hit 99 in the AFL), with good sink and downhill plane, though he may lose a few ticks with longer outings and a larger innings load. His best secondary pitch is his mid-80’s slider with late bite, he typically works low in the zone, and can throw it in the dirt when needed, generating some bad swings. He also throws a changeup, that needs some work, and will more than likely be the focus of his development this season. Oh yeah, and he’s from Brazil, signing the highest bonus of any Brazilian player in history at $800,000.

Tier 2: Floorboreds
Lacking the “star” upside. They might have some warts, but their ETAs are on the horizon.

Travis Demeritte, 2B | Age: 22 | ETA: 2018 | 2016 Level: A+

After being acquired by the Braves at the deadline, the powerful second baseman immediately became one of the top hitting prospects in the Atlanta system. The power is real, but will it translate to the upper reaches of the minors and eventually the bigs is the question. Between a previous PED suspension in 2015, and a very productive stint in homer happy High Desert, some of the eye popping numbers of 2016 must be called into question. 2017 will be a true testament of what type of prospect Demeritte is, a high ceiling power hitter, or simply a flash in the pan with some pop.

Max Fried, LHP | Age: 22 | ETA: 2017 | 2016 Level: A

After coming to the Braves in the Justin Upton deal, Fried was on the shelf until 2016 as he recovered from Tommy John surgery. So this year was a major step in his recovery, particulary after not pitching for nearly 20 months. Fried’s upside probably makes him questionable for this section, and he could easily jump into the “Beach” should he start the year off with a bang. Looks like he has the upside of a number 2 starter.

Sean Newcomb, LHP | Age: 23 | ETA: 2017 | 2016 Level: AA

The powerful lefty acquired in the Andrelton Simmons trade looks almost perfect on paper. First off, he throws his fastball in the high 90’s, secondly he offers another plus pitch in his curveball, and even mixes in an average change. The major wart in Newcomb’s game is the major lack of control. If he could cut down by even one walk per 9, we’d be looking at a must own fantasy starter. Unfortunately, that’s not that case, and until he does, his major league exposure will be limited, and ugly.

Lucas Sims, RHP | Age: 22 | ETA: 2017 | 2016 Level: AAA/AA

After making adjustments to his delivery in 2015, Sims made major strides in 2016. Throwing his pitches with far more control and much crisper bite. Not sure he has the same upside as some of the arms in the Atlanta system, but he should be in the big league rotation in short order. Was very good in his 17 starts in AA, but struggled in his AAA appearances.

Mike Soroka, RHP | Age: 19 | ETA: 2018 | 2016 Level: A

A strike throwing teenager who’s wise beyond his years. That pretty much sums up every scouting report you’ll read on Soroka. He’s not the most exciting prospect for fantasy, but in deeper leagues he offers a very high floor. Looks like a no doubt major leaguer with the upside of Rick Porcello. Not my favorite prospect, but someone who should not be ignored.

Others: “Super Prospect” Rio Ruiz, Dustin Peterson, Anfernee Seymour, Zach Bird, Lucas Hebert

Tier 3: Long Shot Lolitas
Sexy ceilings, but these youngsters also come with risks and distant ETAs

Ronald Acuna, OF | Age: 18 | ETA: 2019 | 2016 Level: A/Rk

One of the breakout prospects of 2016, as he burst onto the scene early in the year before a thumb injury slowed down his ascent. Much like Albies, Acuna is advanced beyond his years showing elite hit tool and approach for an 18 year old prospect. His speed isn’t off the charts, but he has the ability to steal 20+ bases now, and more power could develop as he matures. He’s straddling the line of “Spec on The Beach”, and I would expect he reaches that status a year from now.

Joey Wentz, LHP | Age: 19 | ETA: 2020 | 2016 Level: Rk

I’ve gone on record before that I prefer Wentz to Anderson for fantasy purposes. While Anderson shows a very safe profile for a prep arm, Wentz’s stuff is better, and he’s a lefty with a bigger frame. One of the more talented two way high school players in the draft, Wentz’s stock dropped a little due to a dead arm period during the showcase circuit season. This forced Wentz to play almost exclusively as a first baseman. After implementing a throwing program, Wentz’s velocity jumped to the mid-90’s on his fastball. His secondary offerings are what separate him from Anderson in my opinion as he pairs a plus curveball with a plus change. Shows as high of an upside as any arm in the system.

Ian Anderson, RHP | Age: 18 | ETA: 2020 | 2016 Level: RK

The “Aqualung” was the third overall pick in last year’s draft, and was a bit of a shock selection that early. The pick makes sense because the Braves were able to sign him under slot at $4 million, saving $2.5 Million to spend on other picks (like Wentz). Scouting reports are split on just how much projection Anderson has, his floor is higher than most prep arms, placing him somewhere on the scale of number 3 starter. His arsenal is comprised of  mid 90’s fastball that touches 97 on occasion, a breaking pitch with slurve action, and an average change. He possesses excellent control and solid command for an 18 year old, and shows little bullpen risk.

Touki Toussaint, RHP | Age: 20 | ETA: 2019 | 2016 Level: A+

Acquired from the diamondbacks for a bag of cash described as “Bronson Arroyo’s contract”, Touusaint was one of the top prep arms in the 2014 draft. He possesses an excellent curveball and plus fastball, but struggles with command. He made major strides toward refining his ability to take the next step this season with Rome. There’s huge upside here, but also some significant risk.

Alex Jackson, OF | Age: 20 | ETA: 2019 | 2016 Level: A

After being label by many the best prep prospect, and hitter in the 2014 Draft, Jackson has struggled to find his footing in the professional ranks. After dealing with a nasty combo of hand and shoulder injuries in 2015, the Mariners took a cautious approach with him in 2016. Leaving him in extended spring training to work on maturity on and off the field. It paid off with his best season as a pro even if the .243/.332/.408 slashline is underwhelming. Jackson showed improved plate approach, and began to tap into his massive raw power. All in all he’s still young at 20, with as much upside as any prospect in the lower minors. It’s not surprising the Braves targeted him this offseason, they’ve done a great job of acquiring talented hitters with some warts. Former Fangraphs writer/current Braves front office member Kiley McDaniel’s glowing reports of Jackson leading up to and following the 2014 draft should have tipped us off that there’s advocates of Jackson in his new organization.

Others: Kyle Muller, Ricardo Sanchez, Abrahan Gutierrez, Junior Severino, Yenci Pena, Braxton Davidson, Luke Dykstra

Follow me on Twitter @ralphlifshitzbb and subscribe to the Fantasy Prospect Podcast on iTunes

   
  1. Tehol Beddict

    Tehol Beddict says:
    (link)

    How’s my Dik taste?

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Tehol Beddict: Dead guys have dik? Seriously? You’re alive?

  2. Saints says:
    (link)

    Great work i really like it Ralph. This is amazing for my upcoming Dynasty draft. At which time have you planned to release a Top 50 (or Top 100) Prospect List ?

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Saints: Unfortunately Top 100 won’t be until the end of the offseason. Usually late February to early March.

      • Saints says:
        (link)

        @Ralph Lifshitz:
        Ouch thats very late for me I’m starting my rookie dynasty Draft in 3 Weeks (yeah i know its early) :D :D
        I think i will have a lot of questions which player i should pick :D
        I will use the old rankings a little bit and try to get a feel for the situation with it :)

        • Ralph Lifshitz

          Ralph Lifshitz says:
          (link)

          @Saints: Shoot me questions on here.

          • Saints says:
            (link)

            @Ralph Lifshitz:
            Thanks :) I will ;)
            Just need to get an overview of the available players ;)

  3. The JoGarza says:
    (link)

    Would you say your ETA on Allard is on the conservative side? I was thinking something more summer of 2019 assuming he continues on his trajectory. Perhaps I might be too aggressive/optimistic in assuming he reached double-A at the very end of 2017.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @The JoGarza: He’s more than likely blocked and the injuries concerns will probably delay him.

  4. Keith says:
    (link)

    No mention of Rio Ruiz at all? Seems to be a very glaring omission.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Keith: I think he’s grossly overrated. Not a fan. Please feel free to share what I’m missing.

      • Grey

        Grey says:
        (link)

        Not a fan of The Ruiz River? Oh, Ralph.

        • Ralph Lifshitz

          Ralph Lifshitz says:
          (link)

          @Grey: Too many Alligators

      • Keith says:
        (link)

        @Ralph Lifshitz:

        Well before the 2015 season, he was at least a borderline top 100 spec (made the top 50 of Kiley McDaniels’ list, top 100 of Keith Law’s list, and top 120 of MLB.com’s list). He had a disappointing year to say the least in AA, but was the 3rd youngest qualified player in all of AA that year. In 2016, he had a pretty nice year as the 3rd youngest qualified player in all of AAA. He is still a little inconsistent, but that can be forgiven considering his age and how good he looks at the plate when he’s on. His defense has also improved over the years to the point that he can be an average big league 3B. He hasn’t recovered his top 100 status yet, but it is definitely possible for him to do that by mid-season with a solid year. I think he’s better than most of the discussed “floor board” prospects and better than all the “other” floor board prospects.

        • Ralph Lifshitz

          Ralph Lifshitz says:
          (link)

          @Keith: I’all take Demeritte over him every time. Max Fried and Soroka as well.

          What’s his premium fantasy skill? He can’t run his pop is meh, and his best skill is his hit tool, yet he struggles to hit for a high average. He’s more than likely a defensive liability and seems destined to be a second division regular at best. I just don’t see it. Maybe I’m wrong.

          • Keith says:
            (link)

            @Ralph Lifshitz:

            You don’t need to have a premium fantasy skill to become a valuable MLB player. And while he is unlikely to be valuable in 10 team mixed leagues with 9 offensive spots, people play in all sorts of league depths. An outcome like Solarte or David Freese isn’t all that bad. Maybe you are more of a super shallow league guy though. Nothing wrong with that.

            • Ralph Lifshitz

              Ralph Lifshitz says:
              (link)

              @Keith: Haha I’m mostly a 16-30 team guy. I don’t play in a 10, never have, and I’m in one 12 teamer.

              I’d like to think I go as deep into farms as anyone. At best he was a list name for me, not a player I’d highlight. Braves are a deep system. In a list like the Orioles, a player like Ruiz would probably be discussed. I’m sorry if you feel this is only useful for shallow leagues.

              • Dr. Kenneth Noisewater says:
                (link)

                @Ralph Lifshitz: Bro I’m in a 64 team, Ruiz only league. Step your shit up.

                • Grey

                  Grey says:
                  (link)

                  “I’m taking Bryce Harper, with the contingency he only plays if he marries a Latina with the last name Ruiz and takes her last name.”

                  • Ralph Lifshitz

                    Ralph Lifshitz says:
                    (link)

                    @Grey: Ha!

                  • Dr. Kenneth Noisewater says:
                    (link)

                    @Grey: I took a bunch of soccer players over Rio.

                    • Grey

                      Grey says:
                      (link)

                      HA…I hope for your sake Carlos Ruiz finds a job in 2017

                • Ralph Lifshitz

                  Ralph Lifshitz says:
                  (link)

                  @Dr. Kenneth Noisewater: Ruiz only! That format is like learning Chinese!

  5. Tweak says:
    (link)

    At this point, you could swap the names reports on Maitan and Lazarito. At least I can hope to see Maitan play if he gets some time in Gwinnett (I’m in a AAA town).

    I didn’t realize Atlanta’s system was so deep. With that many arms in the hopper, some are bound to work out. I like the toolsy/defensive guys they seem to be building around here – Swanson, Albies, Mallex Smith. With the money to buy a power hitter or two (maybe JD Martinez?), Freeman’s continued development and the focus on defense, the future seems bright in Atlanta.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Tweak: Yeah it’s a great system. Maitan is less of a question mark. Lazarito has some real risk

  6. M says:
    (link)

    You guys sure Maitian isn’t a Latin 16 (tack in a couple years so maybe he’s really 19, 20? Lol

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @M: I don’t think so, he’s been on the map for a looooooong time. Kiley McDaniel formerly of Fangraphs, now of the Braves front office wrote about him at 14. He’s the truth. I’m far more skeptical of Lazarito’s age, as well as other Cubans and Dominicans. The Venezuelans seem to bust less.

  7. Branta says:
    (link)

    I have a question for the entire Razzball staff: Do you guys play OOTP Baseball? I say this not to advertise but just out of curiosity, I love it. I’m terrible at it, but I love it.

    • Grey

      Grey says:
      (link)

      Never have

      • Malicious Phenoms says:
        (link)

        @Grey:
        Tonight is the Cubs night.
        Start the same lineup as last night.
        Hope the Tribe starts Lonnie & Tyler again.

        Last night of Buck talking endlessly about Chapman and the 3 super heroes in the Tribes pen. jeez

        Last night of the camera on Francona and Maddon every few seconsd..jeez

        GO CUBS!

        • Ralph Lifshitz

          Ralph Lifshitz says:
          (link)

          @Malicious Phenoms: I just hope it’s the Game 7 this series and playoffs deserve. Game 6 was a stinker, well, for everyone but Cubs fans!

          • Malicious Phenoms says:
            (link)

            @Grey: @Ralph Lifshitz:

            Thoughts about this trade offer I received:

            Malicious Phenoms trades away
            Goldschmidt, Paul
            Castro, Starlin
            Profar, Jurickson
            Gurriel, Yuli
            Blair, Aaron

            L.I. Spartans trades away
            Sánchez, Aarón
            Lester, Jon
            Springer, George
            Ozuna, Marcell
            Trumbo, Mark

            • Ralph Lifshitz

              Ralph Lifshitz says:
              (link)

              @Malicious Phenoms: Goldy is the best player, but I love the overall return.

              • Malicious Phenoms says:
                (link)

                @Ralph Lifshitz:
                He has taken out Castro and Blair and wants Teheran and Wainwright instead..still do it?

                • Ralph Lifshitz

                  Ralph Lifshitz says:
                  (link)

                  @Malicious Phenoms: Probably, but I’m less excited about it.

                  • Malicious Phenoms says:
                    (link)

                    @Grey: @Ralph Lifshitz:

                    Here is the trade we made:

                    Malicious Phenoms trades away
                    Goldschmidt, Paul
                    Castro, Starlin
                    Profar, Jurickson
                    Gurriel, Yuli
                    Wainwright, Adam

                    L.I. Spartans trades away
                    Sánchez, Aarón
                    Lester, Jon
                    Springer, George
                    Ozuna, Marcell
                    Trumbo, Mark

                    • Grey

                      Grey says:
                      (link)

                      Sounds decent still

            • Grey

              Grey says:
              (link)

              Sounds decent

        • Grey

          Grey says:
          (link)

          Tonight is the night when we learn if Miller can pitch 4 innings and/or see Lester close a game

          • Ralph Lifshitz

            Ralph Lifshitz says:
            (link)

            @Grey: Hahaha. I don’t know Maddon described Chapman, as a very strong young man.

            • Grey

              Grey says:
              (link)

              Sounds subjective, Cougs describes me as strong, but she’s 97 lbs and five-oh

              • Ralph Lifshitz

                Ralph Lifshitz says:
                (link)

                @Grey: A mustache makes everyone look significantly stronger.

                • Grey

                  Grey says:
                  (link)

                  I mustache ask you a question, how was Florida?

                  • Ralph Lifshitz

                    Ralph Lifshitz says:
                    (link)

                    @Grey: Not bad, the kids had a blast, and it was nice to get away. That said looking forward to watching game 7 from the comfort of my living room.

                    • Grey

                      Grey says:
                      (link)

                      Nice! Is Epcot still a thing? Did you go?

          • Malicious Phenoms says:
            (link)

            @Grey:
            I think every pitcher will throw tonight if needed, except Arrieta and Tomlin

            • Ralph Lifshitz

              Ralph Lifshitz says:
              (link)

              @Malicious Phenoms: I’m interested to see how much Maddon trusts the other guys tonight.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Branta: No but I’m all about trying something new. Don’t know much about it.

  8. Dr. Kenneth Noisewater says:
    (link)

    I hope the Cubs lose by 26.

  9. Jensen says:
    (link)

    Reading this got me so hot and bothered for the REL to start up again. I have the Braves of course and picking only 10 farm players to protect is going to be the hardest thing I do all year! You da man Ralph.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Jensen: I’d go Swanson, Albies, Maitan, Riley, Newcomb, Allard, Wentz, Demeritte, Anderson, and Acuna. If Swanson counts as an MLB guy, I’d keep Touki.

      • Jensen says:
        (link)

        @Ralph Lifshitz: By my guess Awanson, Albies, and Newcomb will all count as “MLB” guys based on how many times they have been to spring training bc that is the dumb metric Yahoo uses to put players in the system to start the year. I doubt I’ll protect Maitan as I don’t see the Braves trading him and he is still years away. Maybe his age 18-19 season I’ll protect.

        • Ralph Lifshitz

          Ralph Lifshitz says:
          (link)

          @Jensen: Yeah I forgot about all those weird rules. So who are your ten?

  10. Connor Behnen says:
    (link)

    Ralph, are they ordered the way you’d draft them in their respective groups? i.e. you would take Swanson over Maitan and Albies?

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Connor Behnen: I’d probably take Albies first, but Swanson will probably be higher on Top 100’s. He’s 12 team mixed league relevant this year so it’s tough to rank the two higher. Maitan is the most talented of the bunch, and it’s a testament to his talent that he’s listed in that group at 16 having never played a real pro game in the states. Swanson is probably the consensus top prospect in the system, even if others have higher ceilings his floor is very high.

      • Connor says:
        (link)

        @Ralph Lifshitz: Sorry Ralph, I meant the question more generally. Basically, how are you ordering the guys in each grouping? No order? Consensus ranking? I was hoping it was YOUR ranking just to give me a better idea of who you’d pick if it was close between a few guys.

  11. Miketron says:
    (link)

    I like Fried too, but I think 2017 ETA is a little aggressive. He will probably be limited to about 130 innings next year and hasn’t pitched above Low-A. Maybe you are thinking bullpen debut later in the year?

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Miketron: I would imagine he starts the season at AA Mississippi. If he pitches well there it wouldn’t surprise me if he is promoted to Gwinnett and makes a few spot starts in Atlanta.

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Miketron: Also Rome is class A not low A

  12. Miketron says:
    (link)

    Thanks for the clarification! Almost caught up on the prospect podcast. Good stuff, thanks for doing it!

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Miketron: Thanks for checking it out. We’re going to be going over the Braves system this weekend, so some follow up on this post.

  13. Lougle says:
    (link)

    Roughly where do you think Acuna falls in your fantasy top 100? Is he right around where Robles was last year (late 20s)?

    • Ralph Lifshitz

      Ralph Lifshitz says:
      (link)

      @Lougle: Probably somewhere from 60-90. He’s not as exciting as Robles, even if there’s a lot of similar characteristics.

  14. The JoGarza says:
    (link)

    Hey Ralph,

    Which of these two trades do you like the most? 16-team dynasty with QS and OBP instead of their standard counterparts.

    deGrom and K.Allard for Y.Tomas, M.Wacha and Francis Martes

    or

    deGrom for Xander Bogaerts and ERod

    Disclaimer: We have more of a need for power, specifically in the OF. We also own Ian Desmond, who is our only SS and we know he’s not going to have the eligibility in 2017. Of course he could sign a deal elsewhere and return to the position.

Comments are closed.