According to baseball mythos, on a spring day in the year 1839, in the bucolic town of Cooperstown, New York, Abner Doubleday, who would later be a hero at the Battle of Gettysburg, sat down and composed the Rules of Baseball. He was said to have designed the diamond, indicated fielder positions, and wrote down the rules and the field regulations. The cynical truth is that Doubleday’s invention of baseball was an invention by baseball – the tale fit the public’s desire for a pastoral setting of the game which soon became known as our “National Pastime,” by a hero of the Civil War. Actually, Doubleday was nowhere near Cooperstown at that time, likely never visited the town, never mentioned baseball in his memoirs, and likely never held a baseball nor picked up a bat during his lifetime. The source of the Doubleday tale was a letter sent to the panel from elderly Abner Graves, who was five years old in 1839 when Doubleday was supposedly writing down his notes. Soon afterwards, Graves was convicted of murdering his wife and spent his final days in an asylum for the criminally insane. The dubious nature of the witnesses’ mental state did not deter the Lords of Baseball from stamping their seal of approval on the story.

If you have had a chance to visit Hoboken, New Jersey, you will have undoubtedly spotted the old Maxwell House Coffee Plant. Maxwell House closed down in the early 1990’s; if you visited the city before that time, you would have noticed the ubiquitous redolent smell of coffee throughout the city. Deep within the bowels of the plant lies what was once a ball field in a park called Elysian Fields. It was at that field that the first recorded baseball game took place. Alexander Joy Cartwright wrote down the rules and regulations of baseball, and assembled a squad called the New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. The first “official” game of baseball was played on June 19, 1846, under the New York Rules, between the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club of New York City and the “New York Nine” at Elysian Fields in Hoboken New Jersey. For the record, the Knickerbockers were annihilated by the New York Nine, 23-1.

During approximately the next 60 years, there were frequent rules changes, as well as evolution of equipment. Initially, the ballplayers did not use gloves. The catchers, who played far in back of home plate, had a thin piece of leather for a glove. Pitchers had to throw underhand, from a distance of 50’. Batters could request whether they wanted the pitch low or high. At first you needed to get 9 balls to get a walk, with this number changing every several years. It took quite a few years for batters to be awarded first base when hit by a pitch. Prior to this, a pitcher could plunk a batter continuously until he had enough balls to achieve a walk. There are recorded instances of pitchers doing just that to legendary manager John McGraw, who was universally hated by all those who weren’t teammates. On one occasion, McGraw attacked the umpire, who was gleefully watching the action. Most baseball historians state that 1893 was the beginning of the modern era, as this was the year that the pitching mound was moved to its present location, 60’ 6” from home plate. The last major change in the rules came in 1903, when the American League adopted the Foul Strike Rule, against much opposition. Since that time, the only rule change that radically changed the nature of the game was the Designated Hitter Rule, which was adopted in 1973, exclusively in the American League.

The question remains – how and why did these changes in rules come about? Although the majority of the adjustments occurred as a result of experience over time, many of these changes were actually the result of the ingenuity, and at times, eccentricity, of ballplayers of the 19th century.

Perhaps the greatest showman and slugger of the 19th century was Michael “King” Kelly. Kelly could be said to be the Babe Ruth of his time. Some say that he was the prototype of the baseball standard hitter’s lament, Earnest Lawrence Thayer’s 1888 poem “Casey at the Bat”. Kelly was both known and loved for his antics on and off the field. He traveled with a Japanese manservant, as well as a pet monkey. A famous song of the period, “Slide Kelly, Slide” was a nationwide hit. Kelly is the first player who is credited with giving autographs. One day, while he was managing the Boston Beaneaters, Kelly observed a foul ball heading towards the bench. He realized that none of his players had a chance to make the catch. The rules at the time allowed for player substitutions at any time during the game; taking advantage of the situation, Kelly leapt off the bench, shouted out “Kelly now catching for Boston”, and caught the ball for an out. Shortly following this episode, a rule was adopted that allowed substitutions only during time outs.

Wee Willie Keeler, the ballplayer who “hit it where they ain’t”, had an uncanny ability to bunt almost any ball pitched to him. Keeler would bunt foul balls until he worked the pitcher for a walk. His unique abilities were the impetus for the rule change that made the third-strike foul bunt a strike out.  Keeler also perfected the Baltimore Chop, in which he would chop the ball into the ground hard enough for it to bounce so high that he could reach first base before the throw to the bag. Keeler was also one of the first players who used the strategy of “hit and run”, although manager Tommy McCarthy was the first manager to make use of this strategy. McCarthy also popularized letting short fly balls drop in front of him, hoping to start a double play. Shortly after this became a common strategy, baseball implemented the infield fly rule.

Luther Taylor was a pitcher with the New York Giants for eight years in the 1890’s. Taylor was a deaf mute, and like all deaf ball players of that period, his moniker was “Dummy”. Taylor once convinced the umpire to stop a baseball game on a rainy day by wearing rain boots and carrying an umbrella onto the pitcher’s mound. Taylor is credited with helping to expand and make universal the use of sign language throughout the modern baseball infield, including the use of pitching signs.

Taylor’s manager, John McGraw, learned sign language in order to communicate with Taylor. On one occasion, Taylor and McGraw were laughing at and denigrating the umpire in sign language.  The umpire suspected what was occurring, and threw them both out of the game.

There was another deaf mute of that period, whose name was William “Dummy” Hoy. Hoy was a superb outfielder. There are numerous accounts from the contemporary newspapers of that time listing his fielding exploits. On one occasion Hoy caught a ball after leaping astride a horse hitched to a buggy parked inside the stadium. The crowd responded by giving Hoy a standing ovation, wildly waving their hats and arms, which was the only way the outfielder could recognize their appreciation of his performance. Hoy was also a superb base stealer, swiping over 600 bases in his career. SAGNOF!

Most importantly, Hoy played a pioneering role in developing the intricate system of hand signals, used today throughout the entire world of baseball. Prior to Hoy, all umpires’ calls were shouted. While at bat, Hoy would ask his coach whether the call was a ball or strike. Oftentimes, the opposing pitcher would attempt to take advantage of Hoy’s confusion, by quick-pitching him. Around 1887, Hoy wrote out a request to his third base coach, asking him to raise his left arm to indicate a ball, and right arm a strike. Umpires found these signals to be so useful that they soon became S.O.P. Hoy was also responsible for introducing the “out” and “safe” signs, both of which are adapted from ASL.

Arlie Lathan was one of the most colorful ballplayers in the history of the game. He starred on Charley Comiskey’s St. Louis Browns squads of the 1880’s, known for their feisty and rowdy behavior. Arlie was the mischievous imp of baseball, and was nicknamed “The Freshest Man on Earth”, a popular song during that period,. (I guess you had to be there) due to his hilarious pranks and buffoonery. On one occasion, Arlie went into an apoplectic rage following a call by umpire Tim Hurst. Lathan slammed his glove to the ground, and kicked it towards Hurst. Hurst proceeded to kick it back to Arlie. Arlie again kicked it back to Hurst; Hurst kicked it back to Arlie. The two proceeded to kick the glove back and forth until the glove finally came to rest in the depths of center field.

During baseball’s infancy, each player used to take turns coaching 1st and 3rd base. Arlie had a knack for the job; he incorporated his own unique style by running up and down the third base line screaming like a banshee, and ululating like a lunatic in the middle of the pitcher’s wind-up. There was no rule at the time that disallowed such behavior. Because of his antics, the league established the coaching box in order to prevent Arlie and his imitators from this farcical yet quite effective conduct. Because of his obvious proficiency at the job, after his career was finished, Lathan would become baseball’s first full time third base coach. The characteristic chatter that goes on in the field, with constant encouragement to the pitcher and derogatory remarks to the batter that is part of the fabric of the game is also attributed to Latham.

Besides being a cut-up, Arlie was a heck of a ballplayer. His play in the 1887 season rates as one of the greatest offensive years in all of baseball’s history. That year Latham batted .316, with 198 hits, 45 walks, 129 stolen bases, scoring an unbelievable 163 runs. If you add up his hits and walks, he was on base 243 times, and scored 163 times, an incredible percentage. But Arlie was best known for his speed. The famous evangelist, Billy Sunday, was once a baseball player; in fact, in terms of base running ability, he was described by some pundits to be the equal of the immortal Ty Cobb. In 1885, a famous footrace took place between Lathan and Sunday – the preacher won by quite a few strides. Sunday later incorporated his baseball skills into his preaching, sliding onto the stage of the Sawdust Trail as if he were stealing a base.

  1. carlos marmLOL says:

    So at this point in the season I’m safe dropping Dunn, right?

  2. El Famous Burrito Burrito says:

    This was a pretty cool piece, but nowhere does it mention if I should drop Napoli or not.

  3. Gavin says:

    Hey guys. I just want to say that you’ve got an awesome little community of fantasy/baseball fans that follow you. The comments on here somehow never seem to turn into racial or politically charged nonsense, as you’ll find in any other blog comments. Cheers to people that keep this about baseball.

  4. Cotton says:

    Great read. Thanks!

  5. nyydj2 says:

    Very enjoyable reading. Nice writeup Paulie!

  6. Eddy says:

    Wow, what a great article. I did not know any of these things. It’s only the second installation and this is quickly entrenching itself as one of my favorite Razzball series.

    Love it.

  7. Too Live Crudite says:

    @Gavin: N0bama is a Kenyan!

    Also, Lucroy or Iannetta?

  8. CGSO says:

    enjoyed the read very much, cheers

  9. Graymerica9 says:

    Excellent read.

  10. Dominic says:

    hah great article, those old time baseball players liked to cheat the system that’s for sure.

  11. Wake Up says:

    Great read once again.

  12. Probable Party Starter says:

    In my head it was read to me by the crotchety old man character Dana Carvey played on SNL. Fantastic!

  13. Charles says:

    Maybe I’m being overly skeptical, but are these stories actually real? They’re very entertaining and I can’t wait for next week’s edition.

  14. Chris says:

    Wee Willie Keeler is the true Sparky Anklebiter!

    Great read, Paulie. Thanks!

  15. Gavin says:

    @Charles: I don’t know about recent editions, but an older edition of the Total Baseball Encyclopedia that I have gives fascinating accounts about the personalities and lives of 19th century ball players. These might be excerpts from such stories. Awesome stuff.

  16. uncdrew says:

    I too want to know if these are real. Very, very enjoyable read and I’d like to repeat these stories as needed. I’m fine repeating them as truths but kind of want to know if I’ll be fibbing at all or not. :)

  17. AL KOHOLIC says:

    ha great job once again my friend,how was the pitchers mound distance determined?

  18. brett says:

    Great read as always, Paulie. I’m waiting to see an outfielder get around the sac fly rule by bobbling the ball all the way back to the infield before catching it.

  19. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Thank you, Kelly. From the evolution of the game until 1893, different pitching distances were utilized. How they finally came up with 60’6″ is a mystery to me.


    Thanks, Brett. Perhaps I will tell that tale in the next edition!

  20. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Would I lie to you? Actually, the information we have on 19th century baseball is much more accurate and comprehensive then the knowledge that they had of this period in the early 20th century. The researchers at SABR due a superb job of collecting the most obscure data, and have re-emposed reality on players whose deeds were one part myth, and another part legend.


    That is truth, Chris! Wee Willie was the prototype for Sparky Anklebiter. There has never been one greater then he.


    I try to get the history correct in what I write. However, there are various renditions of many well-known baseball anecdotes. Sometimes these tales take on a life of their own. For instance, there is a famous anecdote of Manager Joe McCarthy trying to demonstrate the effect of alcohol on Hack Wilson, who frequently came to the ballpark soused. He took Hack into his office, put a worm in a glass, and poured a glass of Jack Danield into the glass. McCarthy then asked Hack what lesson that he learned from this demonstration. Hack happily answered that if you drink booze, you will never get worms! However, this story has been attributed to several other managers, including John McGraw. It probably occurred, but it is impossible to state the true origins of the tale.

  21. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:




    Glad you enjoyed the article


    It’s not cheating, ballplayers call it Gamesmanship. Fans and fellow players typically admire anyone who gets by while breaking the rules. Except, of course, for P.E.D.’s

    @Wake Up:

    Thank you much!

  22. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:

    @Probable Party Starter:

    Yeah that same crotchety guy that beat up on Ross Perot.


    We know a lot more about the actual history of the game in it’s evolutionairy years then we knew in, say the early 19th century. Thanks to SABR, we have meticulous records of the most obscure stats, and concerning every ballplayer who ever played the game. The long term plan is to do extensive biographies on all ballplayers who ever played the game.

  23. sean says:

    Not surprising to read this article, especially with Baseball In The Garden of Eden on the Bestseller List. It outs the Doubleday story as marketing myth. It’s sad, yet unsurprising, that something that has left such an indelible mark on our society is nothing more than consumerist fiction.

  24. Another interesting article, thanks. My only criticism is that it sort of ended abruptly.

  25. Michael Bourne says:

    Excellent and humorous article. I don’t know the name of the writer, but I could read stories about these like “Kelly now catching for the beaneaters” all day.

  26. fitz says:

    Somebody just traded Crawford for Tomlin straight up in a fairly competitive money league. Veto worthy, right?

  27. Princess Sparrowhawk says:

    I, too, think this is the best article on Razzball; but then I could be called biased. Can’t wait to celebrate your first book tour, sweetie!
    Princess Oreo (AKA your wife).

  28. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Great book. The author, John Thorn, is very involved in SABR. However, the Doubleday myth had been exposed quite a few years ago. Ken Burns takes note of it at the beginning of first CD of his epic work, “Baseball”


    Criticism noted. The piece is made up of excerpts of longer articles that I have written on a number of different individuals and subjects. I was also concerned about the length of the article.

    @Michael Bourne:

    Thank you sir. And the autor, of course, is Paulie Allnuts, manager of the Boston Beaneaters, presently Commish as well as in the cellar of the RCL ECFFL.

    @Princess Sparrowhawk:

    In this case, bias is wonderful!

  29. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    I am not big into vetoing trades, but if there was a trade to veto, this would be it. A few weeks ago, Grey composed a template that is an excelent way to handle this kind of situation”

    To Those That Passed That (adjective) Trade,

    When I saw the trade of (Player(s) Traded Away) for (Player(s) Received), I contemplated vetoing the trade, but even one trade veto can have a domino effect and before you know it every trade is being vetoed. Instead, I decided to take the high road and just voice my disagreement on this message board. Though I do sometimes question my leaguemates’ ability to read something that isn’t scribbled in crayons. On the bright side, you two (plural derogatory name) who were involved in the trade can use this post to practice your reading comprehension. It’s not too late for that GED!

    Since no one has the courtesy to respond to my trade offers, I figured you two were busy hanging out with your significant others. You know, your mothers. “No, Mom, I have friends. The phone just rang the other day. Now please pass the Miracle Whip. Your chicken salad is dry.” Or maybe you were busy making up excuses for walking in on your sister while she’s showering. “Oh, I’m sorry, I didn’t hear the water running.” Or maybe you two were busy (verb) each other in your (adjective) (body part).

    It’s obviously your strategic prerogative to make any trades you want, as it’s my prerogative to wish you both harm. So, douchetards, I have an idea. Rather than digging through dumpsters for discarded porno mags, how about you two (plural derogatory name) get together and punch each other in the face?

    The Guy Who Is Still Going To Beat Both Of You,


    P.S. Anyone need a closer?”

    (Borrowed from Grey Albright)

  30. fitz" says:

    @Paulie Allnuts: Thanks Paulie, I made a post and these are the type of defensive comments I get from other owners…

    “if I owned Crawford and I couldn’t trade him to anyone I’d drop him if it were allowed. He’s become unrosterable at this pt.”

    “Crawford is 6’3 219 lbs and he’s been stealing 50 bases a year for like 10 yrs now. He’s wore himself out as much as an NFL running back plus he’s fat and happy from that big contract. By the end of this year you’ll be greatful Phil didn’t offer him to you cuz he’s done.”


  31. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Some more information concerning your question:
    Legend has it that a proposal was made to move it back to exactly 60′ 0″ (from 45′ 0″). But due to sloppy handwriting, it looked like 60′ 6″ so they moved the mound back to that distance when constructing fields. For no apparent reason, they just decided to keep it that way.

    In the early days of baseball through 1880, a pitcher could stand no closer than 45 feet from home plate and was required to stay within a pitcher’s box. The distance was increased to 50 feet in 1881 in an attempt to give batters a better chance to hit and get out of the way of wild pitches. It was moved again in 1887 when a new rule required a pitcher to keep his back foot on a line that was 55 ½ feet from the plate. Then in 1893, baseball required the pitcher deliver the ball with his back foot anchored on a rubber slab and lengthened the distance to 60 feet, six inches, where it has remained to present day.

    Basically, the Lords of Baseball believed, as they do today, that hitting brought the fans to the park. And if you look at batting stats in 1883 – 1885, you will see a large spike in all offensive stats. Many pitchers, used to the prior distance, couldn’t adapt. A new breed of pitchers, who threw harder then any pitchers before that time, came to dominate the game. They were called “Cyclone” pitchers, and Cy Young was the greatest of them all.

  32. Japanese Manservant says:

    Parry Arnuts right! “Sride! Kerry Sride!”

  33. Terrence Mann says:

    Nice. Knew the Doubleday myth. Not the rest. Great read.

  34. ivebeenupforthreedaysstraight says:

    @Paulie Allnuts: duuuuuuuude. this is excellent work. i love the fact that here at razzball we get not only good insight and valuable information, but top-notch, entertaining writing as well. i think i laugh audibly at least once every time i read something posted here; i send out emails to my baseball nerd friends quoting the absurd shit that gets sent down the razzball tubes… how you all continue to outdo yourselves is simply remarkable. once again: bravo.

  35. mc serch says:

    @Paulie Allnuts: Paulie, great work, that was an awesome read! I’ve decided to immediately begin travelling with a Japanese manservant and a monkey….how I’ve reached this point in my life without having done so already is truly beyond me. Thanks!

  36. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:

    @Terrence Mann:

    Thanks, Mr. Mann. Any new messages popping up on the Fenway scoreboard?


    Thanks. Three years ago I discovered Razzball, and have been hooked ever since.

    @mc serch:

    Players in the pre-historic days of roundball had style. When Kelly signed with Boston, the town purchased him a carriage and two white horses, to take him to the ballpark. Sadly, today’s ballplayers are bland in comparison.

  37. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:

    @Japanese Manservant:

    Familiar Japanese Engrish. “Break a reg!” Chinglish major Hong Kong University:

    “A shadow painted whereyes, a shadow must fall.
    the cow’s breath not forgotten…”

  38. Ed says:

    Great article Paul

  39. gambz says:

    Good read. But, unsure if it was a typo or brain fart, but baseball hadn’t been invented in the 18th century. :-) Keep the good stuff coming!

  40. carlos marmLOL says:

    sorry I was just being a dick with that first comment. Great piece!

  41. Gil Gamesh says:

    I’ve really enjoyed this sight for the last year+ without commenting on the excellent articles.
    This one forces my hand & I’ve got to say I love s**t like this.
    There’s more great s**t like this in “The Great American Novel” written by Phillip Roth in the late ’60s (and it’s all true)….um…maybe

  42. the bat rastard says:

    Hey Paulie….Great article as always. You continue to amaze me with your baseball history. Of course being your manager Im setting up the country wide tour and a show with MLB. Keep up the good work!

  43. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Thanks, Ed


    The great Gambino is, of course, correct. Mark it as a typo
    In the 18th century, they were still playing a long series of off-shoots of rounders and cricket

    [email protected]carlos marmLOL:

    Hey, thanks. I’m wondering what to do with done myself.

    @Gil Gamesh:

    Thanks, Gil. I’m glad that I finally got you to post. Never read the Great American Novel, but I will have to look into it.

    @the bat rastard:

    Yeah, the book signing and th entire bit. Maybe we could wear Razzball tee-shirts. I would like wear one entitled “The Wand-Wagon”, with a hispanic looking Ward Bond type leading a series of wagons aacross the great plains. Thanks, Ratso!

  44. Danial says:

    Best read I’ve had in a while! Well done!

  45. matthole says:

    @Paulie Allnuts: Great Job, Paulie! Very interesting stuff and well-written too…youre the man

  46. Paulie Allnuts

    Paulie Allnuts says:


    Thank you much


    Thanks, Matt. Miss our old RCL. Hope you are doing well


    I will certainly check out the link. Thanks

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